Category Archives: Learning Theory

Open Badges for Assessing Learning

In this video I compare two Open Badge Infrastructures (OBI) as a badge issuer. Open Badge Factory (https://openbadgefactory.com/) and Badge List (http://www.badgelist.com/).

The main question is to what extent were autonomy, diversity, openness and interactivity present?

Further discussion should involve:

  • How to avoid badge inflation / flooding the system / loss of meaning?
  • How to avoid fragmentation: having badges trapped in their issuing environments
  • How to manage badges – Who can create / issue badges?
  • How to evaluate the impact of badges in the community?

 

 

 

Skill Badge: Certified Networked Teacher #CNT12

This is some information about our preparation for the badge ‘Certified Networked Teacher’ at P2PU:
Url of the challenge associated with this badge

Badge Name:  Certified Networked Teacher

Badge Short Description:  The use of web tools in networked learning has become an important 21st century skills for teachers.  This challenge will give you the ability to envision a new future based on web tools in a networked learning scenario.  

Badge Requirements:
You will engage with instructional tools for creating, delivering and managing your learning resources in an innovative way.  The first task is finished when you have posted a link to your learning resource in the CNT challenge and at least one peer participant has posted a comment with approval.  The requirements is that the learning resource specifies the target audience and has the function to model, demonstrate, help us practice or help us reflect.  The final task will be to create a Screencast Tutorial that demonstrate your skills as a Networked Teacher.  After this badge you will be ready to take on syndicated education in distributed learning environments as an ‘Advanced Networked Teacher’.  On expert level you will be a central node in networked learning and change how we understand education in the future.  The experience from this course will turn into a multi-levelled badges program awarded from peer to peer evaluation (i.e Certified Networked Teacher, Advanced Networked Teacher and Expert Networked Teacher). 
 
Image:
 
 
Badge Logic: Skill Badge that requires submissions:
 Rubrics:  A few sentences starting with ‘How well was this peer able to: ‘ that reviewers will use to evaluate the submissions:
  • How well was this peer able to reuse existing learning resources to create his/her own?
  • How well was this peer able to adapt his/her learning resource to deliver it to the target audience?
  • How well was this peer able to organize the material in order to share the learning resource?
 

Teachers Open Online Learning (TOOL)

A ‘Massive Open Online Course’ (MOOC) is an educational tool to apply the theory of connectivism and an open pedagogy based on networked learning.  MOOCs are founded on principle characteristics of autonomy, diversity, openness and interaction.

There has emerged a variant in open learning that is called ‘Collaborative Open Online Learning‘ (COOL).  This can be illustrated with “Education, Curriculum, and Instruction (EC&I) 831: Open, Connected, Social”, where participants engage in the development of a personal blog/digital portfolio and the collaborative development of an educational technology wiki resource.  Before the end each member complete of a student-chosen, major digital project.

 

Our idea of ‘Teachers Open Online Learning’ (TOOL) embrace the idea that a Community of Practitioners meet to share experiences and insights via advanced technologies.  This creates new ways to share and remix resources, collaborate with other educators, and help our learners connect with each other.

Our Community Badges

Earning badges for learning new things is a way to display knowledge and skills. At the moment we have released three light blue ‘CommunityBadges’:

Supporter Contributor Scholar
  • Supporter (A person who supports, promotes, advocates or champions a cause or movement)
  • Contributor (A person who backs, supports or champions a cause, activity or institution)
  • Scholar (A specialist in a particular branch of knowledge)

These ‘Community Badges’ only have value for our community and recognize the work that has been done by participants in the P2PU course “eduToolkit . Teachers Open Online Learning“.  As soon as Mozilla’s Open Badges project allow organizations to issue digital badges, this will allow students to collect badges from different sources and display them across the web – on their resume, web site, social networking profiles, job sites or just about anywhere.  We will soon have green ‘Skill Badges’ available that are compatible with Mozilla’s ‘Open Badge Infrastructure’. The first three modules will continue our work with ‘Teachers Open Online Learning’ and focus on the concept of ‘The Networked Teacher’:

  • Certified Networked Teacher [ #CNT12]– Use of Web Tools
  • Advanced Networked Teacher – Syndicated Education
  • Expert Networked Teacher – Central Node in Learning

Details about who earned ‘Community Badges’ will be availabel in our ‘Hall of fame‘ as an official recognition of particiapants.

Assessment Badges

There are development of ‘Open Assessment’ that recognize that accreditation and certification occurs outside formal education.  Our current focus is on using ‘Open Badges’ as the currency to capture and demonstrate learning, skills and reputation within the community.

There is a section with our ‘Badge Ecosystem” that display application requirements and the official list of each graduate.  The light blue colur are used in the eduToolkit community to represent their involvment.  As soon as Mozilla’s Open Badges project allow organizations to issue digital badges, this will allow students to collect badges from different sources and display them across the web – on their resume, web site, social networking profiles, job sites or just about anywhere.

Rubric for Online Instruction

This ‘Rubric for Online Instruction’ by California State University, Chico is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 United States License.

Baseline Effective Exemplary
  1. Course uses limited technology tools to facilitate communication and learning.

     

  2. New teaching methods are applied to enhance student learning.

     

  3. Multimedia elements and/or learning objects are limited or non-existent.

     

  4. Course uses Internet access and engages students in the learning process.

     

  1. Course uses some technology tools to facilitate communication and learning.

     

  2. New teaching methods are applied to innovatively enhance student learning.

     

  3. Multimedia elements and/or learning objects are used and are relevant to student learning.

     

  4. Course optimizes Internet access and effectively engages students in the learning process.

 

  1. Course uses a variety of technology tools to appropriately facilitate communication and learning.

     

  2. New teaching methods are applied and innovatively enhance student learning, and interactively engage students.

     

  3. A variety of multimedia elements and/or learning objects are used and are relevant to student learning throughout the course.

     

  4. Course optimizes Internet access and effectively engages students in the learning process in a variety of ways throughout the course.

Deep Approach to Learning

Table 1 Compares the characteristics and factors that encourage Deep and Surface Approaches to learning. (Compiled from Biggs (1999), Entwistle (1988) and Ramsden (1992))
  Deep Learning Surface Learning
D
e
f
i
n
i
t
i
o
n
 
Examining new facts and ideas critically, and tying them into existing cognitive structures and making numerous links between ideas. Accepting new facts and ideas uncritically and attempting to store them as isolated, unconnected, items.
C
h
a
r
a
c
t
e
r
i
s
t
i
c
s
Looking for meaning.Focussing on the central argument orconcepts needed to solve a problem.Interacting actively.
Distinguishing between argument and evidence.Making connections between different modules.Relating new and previous knowledge.Linking course content to real life.
Relying on rote learning.Focussing on outwards signs and theformulae needed to solve a problem.Receiving information passively.Failing to distinguish principles from examples.Treating parts of modules and programmes as separate.Not recognising new material as building on previous work.Seeing course content simply as material to be learnt for the exam.
E
n
c
o
u
r
a
g
e
dbyS
t
u
d
e
n
t
s’
 
Having an intrinsic curiosity in the subject.Being determined to do well and mentally engaging when doing academic work.Having the appropriate background knowledge for a sound foundation.Having time to pursue interests, through good time management.Positive experience of education leading to confidence in ability to understand and succeed. Studying a degree for the qualification and not being interested in the subject.Not focussing on academic areas, but emphasising others (e.g. social, sport).Lacking background knowledge and understanding necessary to understand material.Not enough time / too high a workload.Cynical view of education, believing that factual recall is what is required.High anxiety.
E
n
c
o
u
r
a
g
e
dbyT
e
a
c
h
e
r
s’
Showing personal interest in the subject.Bringing out the structure of the subject.Concentrating on and ensuring plenty of time for key concepts.Confronting students’ misconceptions.Engaging students in active learning.Using assessments that require thought, and requires ideas to be used together.Relating new material to what students already know and understand.

Allowing students to make mistakes without penalty and rewarding effort.

Being consistent and fair in assessing declared intended learning outcomes, and hence establishing trust (see constructive alignment).

Conveying disinterest or even a negative attitude to the material.Presenting material so that it can be perceived as a series of unrelated facts and ideas.Allowing students to be passive.Assessing for independent facts (short answer questions).Rushing to cover too much material.Emphasizing coverage at the expense of depth.

Creating undue anxiety or low expectations of success by discouraging statements or excessive workload.

Having a short assessment cycle.

(Source: The Higher Education Academy)

Rubric for Martial Arts

A belt system in martial arts is used to show which students have trained longer and have more skill when compared to other students.  The grades are the “Student” Grades (referred to as Kyu Grades), and the Black Belts (Dan Grades) are considered “Expert” Grades.

level description
Yellow Striking Techniques: Using the head (Kubi-uchi), Using the hand (Oai-tsuki), Using the hammer fist (Tetsie-uchi), Using the back fist (Hiraken-uchi), Using the elbow (Empi-uchi), Using the palm heel (Teisho-uchi), Using the knee (Hiza-geri), Using the front kick (Mae-geri), Using the side kick (Yoko-geri), Using the stomping kick (Fuma-komo-geri), Using the back kick (Ushiro-geri)

Throwing Techniques: Shoulder throw (Seoi-nage), Floating hip throw (Uki-goshi), Advanced foot sweep (Deashi-harai)

Grappling Techniques: Scarf lock (Kesa-gatame), Normal Cross Choke (Name-juji-jime), Wrist lock (Kote-hineri)

Orange Striking Techniques: All previous plus Basic blocks against striking techniques

Throwing Techniques: All previous plus Major hip (O-goshi), Hip wheel (Koshi-guruma), Knee wheel (Hiza-guruma), Major outside reaping (Osoto-gari)

Grappling Techniques: All previous plus Shoulder hold (Kata-gatame), Reverse cross choke (Gyaku-juji-jime), Half cross choke (Kata-juji-jime), Bare hand choke (Hadaka-jime), chicken wing (Hiji-kime), Fore arm lock (Sempaku-gatame), Arm pit lock (Waki-gatame)

Green Striking Techniques: All previous
Throwing Techniques: All previous plus Supporting lift-pull foot (Sasae-tsurikomi-ashi), Major inner reap (Ouchi-gari)
Grappling Techniques: All previous plus Side hold (Yokoshiho-gatame), Sliding lapel choke (Okuri-eri-jime), Single wing choke (Kataha-jime), Under arm figure four (Tenkai-kote-hineri), Over arm figure four (Ude-garami)
Brown Striking Techniques: All previous
Throwing Techniques: All previous plus Body drop (Tai-otoshi), Shoulder wheel (Kata-guruma), Minor outer reap (Kosoto-gari), Minor inner reap (Kouchi-gari), Circle throw (Tomoe-nage)
Grappling Techniques: All previous plus Straddling hold (Tateshiho-gatame), Pump handle lock underarm (Ude-gatame), Pump handle lock overarm (Ude-hineri), Over shoulder lock (Ude-gatame), Stomach bar (Hara-gatame), Cross lapel lock (Te-gatame)

Defensive Situations: Wrist lock (Kote-gaeshi), Straight punch arm bar (Ude-gatame), Moving foot sweep (Ko-soto-gari), shoulder throw (Seoi-nage), Step on toes, Foot sweep (Ko-soto-gari), Inside block to inner reap throw (O-uch-gari), Outer reaping throw (O-soto-gari), Wrist lock (Kote-gaeshi), Floor arm bar, Thumb jamb, Knuckle against the hand, Scissoring the thumb, Wrist lock (Kote-gaeshi), Break through thumb, Arm bar (Sempaku-gatame), Wrist lock  (Kote-hineri), Dislocate thumb

Brown 2nd
Black

(Source: Heike-Ryu Syllabus)

Rubric for Language Skills

The “Common European Framework of Reference for Languages: Learning, Teaching, Assessment”, CEFR, is a guideline used to describe achievements of learners of foreign languages acrossEurope.

level description
A1 Can understand and use familiar everyday expressions and very basic phrases aimed at the satisfaction of needs of a concrete type. Can introduce him/herself and others and can ask and answer questions about personal details such as where he/she lives, people he/she knows and things he/she has. Can interact in a simple way provided the other person talks slowly and clearly and is prepared to help.
A2 Can understand sentences and frequently used expressions related to areas of most immediate relevance (e.g. very basic personal and family information, shopping, local geography, employment). Can communicate in simple and routine tasks requiring a simple and direct exchange of information on familiar and routine matters. Can describe in simple terms aspects of his/her background, immediate environment and matters in areas of immediate need.
B1 Can understand the main points of clear standard input on familiar matters regularly encountered in work, school, leisure, etc. Can deal with most situations likely to arise whilst travelling in an area where the language is spoken. Can produce simple connected text on topics which are familiar or of personal interest. Can describe experiences and events, dreams, hopes & ambitions and briefly give reasons and explanations for opinions and plans.
B2 Can understand the main ideas of complex text on both concrete and abstract topics, including technical discussions in his/her field of specialisation. Can interact with a degree of fluency and spontaneity that makes regular interaction with native speakers quite possible without strain for either party. Can produce clear, detailed text on a wide range of subjects and explain a viewpoint on a topical issue giving the advantages and disadvantages of various options.
C1 Can understand a wide range of demanding, longer texts, and recognise implicit meaning. Can express him/herself fluently and spontaneously without much obvious searching for expressions. Can use language flexibly and effectively for social, academic and professional purposes. Can produce clear, well-structured, detailed text on complex subjects, showing controlled use of organisational patterns, connectors and cohesive devices.
C2 Can understand with ease virtually everything heard or read. Can summarise information from different spoken and written sources, reconstructing arguments and accounts in a coherent presentation. Can express him/herself spontaneously, very fluently and precisely, differentiating finer shades of meaning even in the most complex situations.

(Source: wikipedia 2011)